Predictors of Functional Decline in Nursing Home Residents: The Shelter Project 

Fedecostante M, Onder G, Eusebi P, Dell’Aquila G, Zengarini E, Carrieri B, et al. Predictors of functional decline in nursing home residents: the Shelter project. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019.

 

The aim of our study was to identify independent predictors of functional decline in older nursing home (NH) residents, taking into account both resident and facility characteristics.

 
Methods

Longitudinal observational study involving 1,760 older (≥65 y) residents of NH participating in the SHELTER* study (57 NH in eight countries). All residents underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment using the interRAI LTCF. Functional decline was defined as an increase of at least one point in the MDS Long Form ADL scale during a 1 year follow-up. Facility and country effects were taken into account.

 
Results

During the study period 891 (50.6%), NH residents experienced ADL decline. Residents experiencing ADL decline were older, had lower disability at baseline, were more frequently affected by severe dementia and by urinary incontinence, and used more antipsychotics. In the mixed-effect logistic regression model, factors independently associated with a higher risk of functional decline were dementia and urinary incontinence, whereas the presence of a geriatrician was a protective factor.

 
Conclusions

Both resident and facility characteristics are associated with the risk of functional decline in NH residents. Increasing the quality of healthcare by involving a geriatrician in residents’ care might be an important strategy to improve the outcome of this vulnerable population.

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